思路/絲路

The Problems of Philosophy Ch2

Posted in Courses by sparrowhawk0215 on 2009/03/04

這學期修了英國經驗論,
原以為是會介紹各個英國重要的經驗論者,
不過實際上課之後,才發現原來是依照著 Bertrand Russell的 The Problems of Philosophy在上。

今天講了書的第二章,
大意其實很明白,
Russell 想說的事情是即便的確沒有任何辦法可以反駁懷疑論,
也就是說,即便相信我們認知的這個世界並不存在只是出於我個人的想像,或者是一場尚未醒來的夢,
在邏輯上是可能的,但是,
若遵循著我們的直覺本能—亦即是相信這世界確實是獨立於我的感官經驗之外而真實存在的,
將會把問題大幅簡化,
書中舉的例子(個人覺得相當的有趣 XD)是在一個房間中我看見一隻貓,
隔一會之後我發現它出現在房間的另一頭,我並沒有看見他移動的過程,
我所接收到的全部訊息就只有感官收集而來的感官經驗(書中稱之為sense-data)顯示出在某時刻貓在這頭,
然後一段時間之後在另一頭,我沒辦法毫無懷疑的相信這隻貓在我沒看它的時候還存在,
也許基於某些奇怪的理由,他出現-然後消失-然後再出現,
然而若是這樣的話,卻無法解釋為什麼他再次出現的時候卻餓了想吃東西…

確實,我們可以在我們唯一確定的事情也就是sense-data下發展出各種理論,
讓一切有辦法自圓其說,讓貓出現消失然後在另一點再次出現而且還表現出飢餓的樣子,
但是最簡單的說法莫過於:物質世界確實獨立於經驗之外存在—也就是直覺是對得 XD

其實讀完之後不免有些受欺騙的感覺,
因為 Russell 在這章中並沒有很明確的去回應懷疑論的說法,
他的作法其實就是跟懷疑論者說:
你說得都對,都有可能,我這樣講的確是值得被懷疑,也有理由被懷疑,但是被懷疑不代表他就不真(只是我還沒有找到足夠的證據說明他為真),但就現實運作來說,我的直覺說可以比較順利的解釋大部分日常生活中的現象(相對的若宣稱這世界上並不獨立存在,那接下來的一切都會變得窒礙難行…)

有同學說道:羅素這樣的作法其實根本就沒有回答到任何懷疑論者提出的問題!
也有人說:Realism 的特權之一就是他不需要回答這類的問題,realismist 所需要做的事情就是宣稱某事物存在,而該事物有某種性質,若你承認這種性質,那你也該承認該事物存在

我哲學其實懂得不多,也不知道上面那個討論誰比較有道理

但是在我想來,除了 realismist 有特權之外,skepticismist 也有特權,他們只需要找出事物中有"可能"不真的地方(實際上的真假倒是很難說)就足夠達成懷疑的目的了,從這個角度來說 Russell 這種迴避的作法也不算太過分…
算是以其人之道還治其人之身,只是由於他是原本被質問的一方立場上不免吃虧了點…

嗯,不過至少值得高興的事情是在上完這章之後,世界還是真實存在的 XD

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收剪貼:Men’s Rules – Women should learn these!

Posted in 收剪貼 by sparrowhawk0215 on 2009/02/01

昨天在網路上看到的
覺得相當有趣
暫時轉貼於此
引用來源:http://funny2.com/mensrules.htm


  1. Women, learn to work the toilet seat. You’re a big girl. If it’s up, put it down. We need it up, you need it down. You don’t hear us complaining about you leaving it down.
  2. Birthdays, Valentines, and Anniversaries are not considered by us to be opportunities to see if we can find the perfect present again!
  3. Sometimes we are not thinking about you. Live with it.
  4. Sunday = sports. It’s like the full moon or the changing of the tides. Let it be.
  5. Don’t cut your hair. Ever. Long hair is always more attractive than short hair. One of the big reasons guys fear getting married is that married women always cut their hair, and by then you’re stuck with her.
    Ask for what you want. Subtle hints do not work! Strong hints do not work! Obvious hints do not work! Just say it!
  6. We don’t remember dates. . . .Period!!
  7. Most guys own three pairs of shoes – tops. What makes you think we’d be any good at choosing which pair, out of thirty, would look good with your dress?
  8. Yes and No are perfectly acceptable answers to almost every question.
  9. Come to us with a problem only if you want help solving it. That’s what we do. Sympathy is what your girlfriends are for.
  10. A headache that lasts for 17 months is a problem. See a doctor.
  11. Anything we said 6 months ago is inadmissible in an argument. In fact, all comments become null and void after 7 days.
  12. If you won’t dress like the Victoria’s Secret girls, don’t expect us to act like soap opera guys.
  13. If you think you’re fat, you probably are. Don’t ask us. We’ve been tricked before!!
  14. If something we said can be interpreted two ways, and one of the ways makes you sad or angry, we meant the other one.
  15. Let us ogle. We are going to look anyway; it’s genetic.
  16. You can either ask us to do something or tell us how you want it done. Not both. If you already know best how to do it, just do it yourself.
  17. Whenever possible, please say whatever you have to say during commercials.
  18. Christopher Columbus did not need directions, and neither do we.
  19. The relationship is never going to be like it was the first two months we were going out. Get over it. And quit whining to your girlfriends.
  20. ALL men see in only 16 colors, like Windows default settings. Peach, for example, is a fruit, not a color. Pumpkin is also a fruit. We have no idea what mauve is.
  21. If it itches, it will be scratched. We do that.
  22. We are not mind readers and we never will be. Our lack of mind-reading ability is not proof of how little we care about you.
  23. If we ask what is wrong and you say “nothing", we will act like nothing’s wrong. We know you are lying, but it is just not worth the hassle.
  24. If you ask a question you don’t want an answer to, expect an answer you don’t want to hear.
  25. Don’t ask us what we’re thinking about unless you are prepared to discuss such topics as navel lint, the shotgun formation, or monster trucks.
  26. Foreign films are best left to foreigners. (Unless it’s Bruce Lee or some war flick where it doesn’t really matter what they’re saying anyway.)
  27. BEER is as exciting for us as handbags are for you.
  28. Thank you for reading this; Yes, I know, I have to sleep on the couch tonight, but did you know, it’s like camping.

© 2009 compiled from many sources by Howard Daughters

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